Herbert Simon: Sciences of the Artificial
We have now identified four indicia that distinguish the artificial from the natural; hence we can set the boundaries for sciences of the artificial:
- Artificial things are synthesized (though not always or usually with full forethought) by human beings.
- Artificial things may imitate appearances in natural things while lacking, in one or many respects, the reality of the latter.
- Artificial things can be characterized in terms of functions, goals, adaptation.
- Artificial things are of ten discussed, particularly when they are being designed, in terms of imperatives as well as descriptives.